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View original article on NHS Choices

Head injury and concussion

Information and advice about head injuries and concussion, including the typical symptoms and what to look out for, plus how to treat minor head injuries at home.

Most head injuries are not serious. You do not usually need to go to hospital and should make a full recovery within 2 weeks.

Go to A&E after a head injury if you or your child have:

  • been knocked out but have now woken up
  • been vomiting since the injury
  • a headache that does not go away with painkillers
  • a change in behaviour, like being more irritable
  • problems with memory
  • been drinking alcohol or taking drugs just before the injury
  • a blood clotting disorder (like haemophilia) or take blood-thinners (like warfarin)
  • had brain surgery in the past

You or your child could have concussion.

Symptoms usually start within 24 hours, but sometimes may not appear for up to 3 weeks.

Find your nearest A&E

Call 999 if someone has hit their head and has:

  • been knocked out and has not woken up
  • difficulty staying awake or keeping their eyes open
  • a fit (seizure)
  • problems with their vision
  • clear fluid coming from their ears or nose
  • bleeding from their ears or bruising behind their ears
  • numbness or weakness in part of their body
  • problems with walking, balance, understanding, speaking or writing
  • hit their head in a serious accident, such as a car crash

Also call 999 if you cannot get someone to A&E safely.

How to treat a minor head injury

If you do not need to go to hospital, you can usually look after yourself or your child at home.

It's normal to have symptoms such as a slight headache, or feeling sick or dazed, for up to 2 weeks.

To help recovery:

Do

  • hold an ice pack (or a bag of frozen peas in a tea towel) to the injury regularly for short periods in the first few days to bring down any swelling
  • rest and avoid stress – you or your child do not need to stay awake if you're tired
  • take paracetamol or ibuprofen to relieve pain or a headache – do not use aspirin as it could cause the injury to bleed
  • make sure an adult stays with you or your child for at least the first 24 hours – call 111 for advice if there's nobody who can stay with you

Don't

  • do not go back to work or school until you're feeling better
  • do not drive until you feel you have fully recovered
  • do not play contact sports for at least 3 weeks – children should avoid rough play for a few days
  • do not take drugs or drink alcohol until you're feeling better
  • do not take sleeping pills while you're recovering unless a doctor advises you to

See a GP if:

  • your or your child's symptoms last more than 2 weeks
  • you're not sure if it's safe for you to drive or return to work, school or sports

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